Majority of the country faces a poor standard of healthcare infrastructure that has failed to keep pace with the growing economy. Nearly 1million Indians die every year due to inadequate healthcare facilities and 700million people have no access to specialist care. More than 70% of the Indian population lives in villages and towns yet 80% of India's qualified medical practitioners are located in urban areas. Majority of the healthcare provision and delivery in India is via the private sector with households allocating 5% of the income and the government spending 20%. Only 5% of overall GDP is allocated to the sector. Consequently healthcare is available in the urban markets that are deemed profitable. Moreover most of the resources are drawn to the tertiary care segment that provides large profits, leaving primary and secondary care - which is much needed in towns and villages - underserved. People in rural or semi-urban areas are forced to visit government hospitals that offer low quality treatment or the local medical practitioner who is often underqualified and charges exorbitant payment. Less than a third of the government run centers have a paediatrician or a gynaecologist. Besides the low quality of care, the lack of proper healthcare facilities leads to loss of human lives or irreparable damage caused during transportation to hospitals located in cities far from villages or towns.
Chaupal's impact and success achieved lies in its effective and efficient screening process. It has devised the concept of a multi-disciplinary screening approach for early detection of diseases and treating them in one location in the health camps. The same camp held at a village playground or school can detect cancer , diseases of the heart, lungs, joints and even mental health problems in the village setting by providing specialist attention to the visiting villagers. Treatment is provided at the village site for minor ailments and follow-ups are conducted at the health center and subsequent camps for chronic disease processes.
During trips to local villages, Dr. Tonk came to realize that there was a severe apathy towards health issues. He witnessed not just a lack of funds supporting healthcare delivery but also a severe paucity of thought, organization, and leadership behind providing healthcare to people. He established Chaupal to address the lack of these essential factors and achieve the objective of a healthy body within a healthy community. Dr. Tonk fills the healthcare void by providing education that we need a healthy environment inside and outside, connecting a healthy mindset and human being to a healthy village. He addresses the health of the internal environment by modern medicine, proper nutrition and hygiene, while the health of the external environment is provided by educating villagers about caring for resources, planting trees and limiting the use of pesticides.
Connected to the issue of individual health is how Dr. Tonk raises awareness of hygiene by promoting daily habits such as cleaning hands. Connected to nutrition is how he raises awareness of lifestyle diseases, which have shown alarming incidence among the rural populace, and how he discourages the social malaise of excess consumption of alcohol. His prevention-based approach to healthcare delivery focuses on timely vaccinations and physical exercise to raise fitness levels, decrease stress and prevent diseases of the joints, high blood pressure, diabetes and lungs that form a significant share of the afflictions of the target population.